After previews in Boston (under the title All’s Fair), Rodgers & Hart’s last full-length musical opened on Broadway at the Shubert Theatre on June 3, 1942. Directed by Joshua Logan, with choreography by Robert Alton, the production starred Ray Bolger as Sapiens, the comic hero. The supporting cast included Benay Venuta, Vera-Ellen, and Constance Moore, who was later replaced by Nanette Fabray.
The musical was a critical and commercial hit, running an impressive 427 performances – the longest run of any Rodgers & Hart show. Richard Watts, Jr. of the New York Herald Tribune said the production had a “charming score, ingenious lyrics, beautiful settings and costumes, a first rate comedian, brilliantly staged dances and a pleasant air of festivity.” Barclay Hudson of the New York World-Telegram called it “gay, breezy, naughty, filled with spontaneous laughs, original dancing, catchy music, exquisite costumes and enchanting sets.” And John Anderson of the New York Journal-American, citing Rodgers’ “beguiling” score, called By Jupiter “the gayest and prettiest show” of the season.